The Arctic region is undergoing dramatic transformation. With the melting of ice, the circumpolar region is subject to increasing forces of globalization, and navigating through the Northwest and the Northeast passages is rapidly emerging as a practical and commercial position. How can science calculate and assess the scale of change in this geographic space ? To what extent are the Native populations listened to and act as active participants in decision-making concerning the Arctic ? What is the present state of Arctic governance ? What role can be played by the others countries ?