This brief sets out on a course to distinguish three main kinds of thought that underlie scientific thinking.
Current science has not agreed on an understanding of what exactly the aim of science actually is, how to understand scientific knowledge, and how such knowledge can be achieved. Furthermore, no science today also explicitly admits the fact that knowledge can be constructed in different ways and therefore every scientist should be able to recognize the form of thought that under-girds their understanding of scientific theory. In response to this, this texts seeks to answer the questions: What is science? What is (scientific) explanation? What is causality and why it matters?
Science is a way to find new knowledge. The way we think about the world constrains the aspects of it we can understand. Scientists, the author suggests, should engage in a metacognitive perspective on scientific theory that reflects not only what exists in the world, but also the way the scientist thinks about the world.
The Soviet Union collapsed more than 20 years ago, but the traces left in occupied countries by this monstrous system still affect the lives of millions of people. Under the glittering surface of newsworthy events that regularly appear in the mass media, there are many other wounds hard to heal. The system of education is one of the social structures that was fundamentally affected by Soviet power. Due to unique historical, demographic, and cultural reasons, the experiences of other countries providing education to non-native speaking students cannot be adopted in Estonia without first studying the situation thoroughly. The Estonian Ministry of Education and Research launched the longitudinal study Non-Estonian Child in an Estonian-Language School, with the aim to understand how Estonian schools cope with an increasing number of non-Estonians studying in a second language. This book brings together some results of that study.