This volume provides a set of reviews dedicated to the biology of Interleukin (IL)-10. It includes chapters on its importance for maintaining immune homeostasis in humans, its role in intestinal immunity and its functions during viral and bacterial infections. In addition, it presents reviews on the mechanisms linking innate microbial recognition to the production of IL-10 and on how IL-10 recognition by its receptor functions. The roles of T and B cells as relevant sources of IL-10 are also discussed, with an emphasis on the clinical opportunities offered by IL-10-producing Tr1 cells for the suppression of unwanted immunity. Finally, the functions of other cytokines of the IL-10 family are presented. Collectively, these articles provide a comprehensive overview of our current knowledge on one of the most important anti-inflammatory cytokines known to date.
The aim of the present monograph is a thorough study of the adic-completion, its left derived functors and their relations to the local cohomology functors, as well as several completeness criteria, related questions and various dualities formulas. A basic construction is the Cech complex with respect to a system of elements and its free resolution. The study of its homology and cohomology will play a crucial role in order to understand left derived functors of completion and right derived functors of torsion. This is useful for the extension and refinement of results known for modules to unbounded complexes in the more general setting of not necessarily Noetherian rings.The book is divided into three parts. The first one is devoted to modules, where the adic-completion functor is presented in full details with generalizations of some previous completeness criteria for modules. Part II is devoted to the study of complexes. Part III is mainly concerned with duality, starting with those between completion and torsion and leading to new aspects of various dualizing complexes.The Appendix covers various additional and complementary aspects of the previous investigations and also provides examples showing the necessity of the assumptions. The book is directed to readers interested in recent progress in Homological and Commutative Algebra. Necessary prerequisites include some knowledge of Commutative Algebra and a familiarity with basic Homological Algebra. The book could be used as base for seminars with graduate students interested in Homological Algebra with a view towards recent research.
If you have ever uttered the commonly expressed lament, "Glaucoma is so confusing!" then this text is for you. You will no longer be bewildered. Why practitioners may be confused about how to be of help to patients with glaucoma - in its many incarnations and reincarnations - is easily understood. The issue seems to be overwhelming when one considers that the already massive popu- tion of those with glaucoma is increasing rapidly as the world's population increases and ages. During the past 50 years the fundamental defnition of glaucoma has changed almost 180°, and the indications for treatment have become more variable and c- troversial, some advising early therapy and others strongly cautioning against such an approach: Various diagnostic tests have come and gone and are interpreted in such different ways that there seems to be no consensus; surgical techniques come in and out of fashion in perplexing ways. There seems to be a constantly shifting, sandy foundation on which are built unsteady schools of ever-varying advice. Why prac- tioners, patients, and the public are often bewildered is understandable.