In this book we study the economic impact of the container traffic at one of the most important port in the Mediterranean: the Port of Algeciras Bay (PAB). In order to meet this general objective we analyse in detail the global framework of the containerisation business and the characteristics that currently condition this process. In a second step the physical characteristics of the PAB in relation to this activity are explained, and the situation in respect of the physical and logistics infrastructrue prevailing in the principal Mediterranean ports is described. In a third step we have carried out an analysis of the evolution of the container traffic, in order to situate the PAB in the contexts of both the Spanish ports and those of the rest of the world. Finally, the economic effects are determined; the economic impacts of the Port of Algeciras Bay and its economic relevance are derived from the application of an economic input-output methodology.
This book provides a detailed, up-to-date overview of cystic tumors of the pancreas, with coverage of all aspects of diagnosis and treatment (medical, endoscopic, and surgical). After opening chapters on pathology and classification, cytology, molecular biology, and epidemiology, the role of each of the relevant diagnostic methods is carefully examined. The treatment-related chapters describe surgical approaches, including minimally invasive surgery, as well as ablation modalities and chemo-radiotherapy. Thorough guidance is also provided specifically on the management of cystic tumors in high-risk cases and on follow-up. The authors are global opinion leaders in their field who have contributed cutting-edge chapters, with emphasis on clear diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms and with numerous supporting tables and illustrations.Owing to the widespread use of imaging modalities, clinicians are being confronted by an increasing number of patients with cystic tumors of the pancreas, ranging from benign cysts to metastasized malignancies. The widening spectrum of available diagnostic measures has resulted in controversy over the choice of further means of investigation when cystic changes are encountered, and the growth in therapeutic options has similarly been accompanied by considerable debate over their use. Against this background, Cystic Tumors of the Pancreas will be a valuable source of relevant information for both clinicians and surgeons and will also be of interest to radiologists, pathologists, and basic scientists.
The present work focuses on the diagnosis of TB, covering all its possible ways. Content ranges from clinical diagnosis, which is the first instance in approaching tuberculosis, until the gold standard microbiological and molecular diagnostic tools, which are useful due to its speed and high sensitivity. Additionally, diagnosis of latent TB infection, which is key feature to controlling TB under a public health perspective, is also addressed. This book is intended to be a quick and useful reference for the diagnosis of TB, being of special use for clinicians, pulmonologists and microbiologists, but also to every professional, professors and students involved in research and practice on TB diagnosis. In addition, it is intended to be of interest to professionals all over the world, but especially in countries with high TB endemicity, where the proper diagnosis of TB is a topic of major importance.
This book covers state of the art techniques for health personnel training using natural interfaces, immersive systems and serious games paradigms.
Opening with a comprehensive introduction to the state of immersive visualisation techniques of interaction and simulation used in the industry and training research, the authors then focus on computer vision techniques used to develop realtime training systems effectively, providing recognition of actions and re-identification of persons. Principles of serious gaming applied to immersive natural interfaces are also addressed.
The book culminates with the presentation of two prototypes of immersive systems for natural interaction, that the authors have developed and tested for the training of medical personnel. These prototypes use the principles and the technologies described in the first part of the book. Natural Interaction in Medical Training offers a unique point of view from medical professionals and computer engineers.
The book collects the most relevant results from the INdAM Workshop "Shocks, Singularities and Oscillations in Nonlinear Optics and Fluid Mechanics" held in Rome, September 14-18, 2015. The contributions discuss recent major advances in the study of nonlinear hyperbolic systems, addressing general theoretical issues such as symmetrizability, singularities, low regularity or dispersive perturbations. It also investigates several physical phenomena where such systems are relevant, such as nonlinear optics, shock theory (stability, relaxation) and fluid mechanics (boundary layers, water waves, Euler equations, geophysical flows, etc.). It is a valuable resource for researchers in these fields.
Coastal waters are important ecological systems and vital assets for many nations. Coastal waters are also complex, dynamic environments where a vast array of coupled biological, chemical, geological, and physical processes occurs over multiple time and space scales. The optical environment of coastal waters is particularly complex. There is considerable interest in studying coastal waters to gain a better understanding of earth system processes for climatic change research or environmental factors for management decisions. Consequently, there is a need for robust, effective technologies and methods for studying these important complex environments.
Remote sensing from aircraft and space-based platforms offers unique large-scale synoptic data to address the intricate nature of coastal waters. However, many researchers wishing to apply remote sensing to a dynamic coastal environment are faced with the challenge of learning a technology laden with new and often confusing terminology, data, and methods of processing and analysis. To gain an adequate understanding of remote sensing generally involves scouring countless technical manuals, reports, and scientific papers. Hence the major goal of writing this work was to produce a comprehensive resource for those involved in various studies of coastal aquatic environments. With its primary focus on optical remote sensing using passive instruments, the editors have indeed succeeded in creating a book the scientific community has been waiting for.
"Atlas of Staging in Gynecological Cancer" is designed to be used in conjunction with diagnostic procedures between the surgeon and the radiologist. It describes the two common staging regimes used by all units across the world, namely, the FIGO staging system and the TNM system.
The `landscape' format allows each chapter to open on the left hand side and read across the double spread, enabling the reader to see both staging systems at once. Each chapter has a separate section on Epidemiology, Diagnosis, with radiological plates, Management, in tabular form, and Key Points. The book takes the reader through each gynaecologic cancer with a short text accompanying clear radiographic images with legends. Staging is also shown in pictorial form in order to aid clarity.
The book will be of particular interest to the multi-disciplinary team who looks after this group of patients namely, clinical and radiation oncologists, surgeons, pathologists, radiologists and specialist nurses, all with their respective trainees.
This book presents state-of-the-art technical contributions based around one of the most successful evolutionary optimization algorithms published to date: Harmony Search. Contributions span from novel technical derivations of this algorithm to applications in the broad fields of civil engineering, energy, transportation & mobility and health, among many others and focus not only on its cross-domain applicability, but also on its core evolutionary operators, including elements inspired from other meta-heuristics. The global scientific community is witnessing an upsurge in groundbreaking, new advances in all areas of computational intelligence, with a particular flurry of research focusing on evolutionary computation and bio-inspired optimization. Observed processes in nature and sociology have provided the basis for innovative algorithmic developments aimed at leveraging the inherent capability to adapt characterized by various animals, including ants, fireflies, wolves and humans. However, it is the behavioral patterns observed in music composition that motivated the advent of the Harmony Search algorithm, a meta-heuristic optimization algorithm that over the last decade has been shown to dominate other solvers in a plethora of application scenarios. The book consists of a selection of the best contributions presented at ICHSA, a major biannual event where leading global experts on meta-heuristic optimization present their latest findings and discuss the past, present, and future of the exciting field of Harmony Search optimization. It provides a valuable reference resource for researchers working in the field of optimization meta-heuristics, and a solid technical base for frontline investigations around this algorithm.
This book aims to offer a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of male stress urinary incontinence that will serve as a useful tool and reference for urologists, andrologists, physiotherapists, general practitioners, and nurses. Detailed information is provided on diagnostic workup, including clinical assessment and the role of urodynamic evaluations and other instrumental examinations, and on the full range of potential treatments, from conservative and pharmacological interventions to surgical options. In addition to careful descriptions of the surgical procedures themselves, clear advice is given on the management of iatrogenic complications of incontinence surgery. Helpful treatment algorithms and recommendations offer further practical support. Relevant background knowledge is provided in expert reviews of topics such as the functional anatomy of the male pelvis and the pathophysiology, epidemiology, and classification of male urinary incontinence.
This book presents interdisciplinary research that pursues the mutual enrichment of neuroscience and robotics. Building on experimental work, and on the wealth of literature regarding the two cortical pathways of visual processing - the dorsal and ventral streams - we define and implement, computationally and on a real robot, a functional model of the brain areas involved in vision-based grasping actions.
Grasping in robotics is largely an unsolved problem, and we show how the bio-inspired approach is successful in dealing with some fundamental issues of the task. Our robotic system can safely perform grasping actions on different unmodeled objects, denoting especially reliable visual and visuomotor skills.
The computational model and the robotic experiments help in validating theories on the mechanisms employed by the brain areas more directly involved in grasping actions. This book offers new insights and research hypotheses regarding such mechanisms, especially for what concerns the interaction between the dorsal and ventral streams. Moreover, it helps in establishing a common research framework for neuroscientists and roboticists regarding research on brain functions.
Based on papers from the 4th Business Systems Laboratory International Symposium (BSLAB) in 2016, this volume contributes to the business management, organizational and innovation literature by providing insights on the antecedents of systems thinking in the business systems domain. The Business Systems Laboratory International Symposium addresses current global economic and social challenges from a systemic perspective, drawing from the domains of management, economics, engineering and sociology. In particular, the 2016 Symposium focuses on the epistemological, theoretical, methodological, technical and practical contributions that represent advancements in the theory and practice of governing business systems to address present and future challenges in the global economy. The contributions explore the application of systems thinking to governance, involving the introduction of new administrative organizational and managerial activities aimed toward organizational innovation and control.
This new edited volume in the Springer Subcellular Biochemistry Series presents a comprehensive, state-of-the-art overview of the proteomics of peroxisomes derived from mammalian, Drosophila, fungal, and plant origin, and contains contributions from leading experts in the field.
The development of sensitive proteomics and mass spectrometry technologies, combined with bioinformatics approaches now allow the identification of low-abundance and transient peroxisomal proteins and permits to identify the complete proteome of peroxisomes, with the consequent increase of our knowledge of the metabolic and regulatory networks of these important cellular organelles. The book lines-up with these developments and is organized in four sections including: (i) mass spectrometry-based organelle proteomics; (ii) prediction of peroxisomal proteomes; (iii) analysis of peroxisome proteome interaction networks; and (iv) peroxisomes in relation to other subcellular compartments.
The editor Luis A. del Río is Professor ad honorem of the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) in the Group of Antioxidants, Free Radicals and Nitric Oxide in Biotechnology, Food and Agriculture, Department of Biochemistry and Cell & Molecular Biology of Plants, at the Estación Experimental del Zaidín, Granada, Spain. Del Río's research group focuses on the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and antioxidants in plant peroxisomes, and the ROS- and RNS-dependent role of peroxisomes in plant cell signalling. The editor Michael Schrader is Professor of Cell Biology & Cytopathology in the Department of Biosciences at the University of Exeter, UK. Using mammalian peroxisomes as model organelles, Prof. Schrader and his team aim to unravel the molecular machinery and signalling pathways that mediate and regulate the formation, dynamics and abundance of these medically relevant cellular compartments.
This book examines the sports industry as a broad business and economic sector with an enormous influence on regional economic development. Covering topics such as sports economics, financing sports organizations, sustainability management in sports, sports tourism and doping among athletes, this book provides a timely collection of research and best practices in the areas of sports management and policy. Sports activity is a rapidly growing and evolving industry, offering numerous business opportunities--from the manufacturing of sporting equipment and activity at gyms and sports centers to revenue from sporting events and sport tourism. In order for the varied businesses across the sport industry, whether public or private, to be successful, proper management strategies and policies must be in place. This includes the knowledge of the industry, strategic planning, sector analysis, quality management and sustainable (economic and environmental) use of resources. Featuring case examples from several countries, including Spain, Turkey, Uruguay, Portugal, and Italy, this volume provides international perspectives on a wide spectrum of managerial issues across this dynamic industry.
The book presents the conception and realization of a pervasive electronic architecture for electrochemical applications, focusing on electronic instrumentation design and device development, particularly in electrochemical Point-of-Care and Lab-on-a-Chip devices, covering examples based on amperometric (DC) and impedance detection (AC) techniques. The presented electronics combine tailored front-end instrumentation and back-end data post-processing, enabling applications in different areas, and across a variety of techniques, analytes, transducers and environments.It addresses how the electronics are designed and implemented with special interest in the flow process: starting from electronic circuits and electrochemical biosensor design to a final validation and implementation for specific applications. Similarly, other important aspects are discussed throughout the book, such as electrochemical techniques, different analytes, targets, electronics reliability and robustness. The book also describes the use of the presented electronics in different electrochemical applications through some examples: instantaneous and non-destructive cellular monitoring and portable glucose monitoring device. Moreover, the book aims to introduce a comprehensive approach to electronic circuits, techniques and electrochemical sensors in POC devices to a general audience of students in biomedical and electronics engineering, scientists, and engineers.
One of the most important routes to chaos is the chaotic intermittency. However, there are many cases that do not agree with the classical theoretical predictions. In this book, an extended theory for intermittency in one-dimensional maps is presented. A new general methodology to evaluate the reinjection probability density function (RPD) is developed in Chapters 5 to 8. The key of this formulation is the introduction of a new function, called M(x), which is used to calculate the RPD function. The function M(x) depends on two integrals. This characteristic reduces the influence on the statistical fluctuations in the data series. Also, the function M(x) is easy to evaluate from the data series, even for a small number of numerical or experimental data.
As a result, a more general form for the RPD is found; where the classical theory based on uniform reinjection is recovered as a particular case. The characteristic exponent traditionally used to characterize the intermittency type, is now a function depending on the whole map, not just on the local map. Also, a new analytical approach to obtain the RPD from the mathematical expression of the map is presented. In this way all cases of non standard intermittencies are included in the same frame work.
This methodology is extended to evaluate the noisy reinjection probability density function (NRPD), the noisy probability of the laminar length and the noisy characteristic relation. This is an important difference with respect to the classical approach based on the Fokker-Plank equation or Renormalization Group theory, where the noise effect was usually considered just on the local Poincaré map.
Finally, in Chapter 9, a new scheme to evaluate the RPD function using the Perron-Frobenius operator is developed. Along the book examples of applications are described, which have shown very good agreement with numerical computations.
In this book, the interrupt handling models used by several operating systems are introduced and compared. We begin with an analysis of the classical interrupt management model used by Unix, followed by the schemes used by modern networked environments.
We highlight the key challenges of each of these models and how these have been solved by modern operating systems and the research community. Then we analyze the architectures used for general purpose and embedded real-time operating systems.
The emergence of H5N1 avian influenza in 1997 and of the influenza A H1N1 of swine origin in 2009 calls for new, rapid and sustainable solutions for both seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses. During the last ten years, science and technology have made enormous progress, and we are now able to monitor in real time the genetics of viruses while they spread globally, to make more powerful vaccines using novel adjuvants, and to generate viruses in the laboratory using reverse genetics. This volume not only provides state-of-the-art information on the biology of influenza viruses and on influenza vaccines, but is also designed to be a resource to face the present H1N1 pandemic and to plan for long-term global and sustainable solutions.
This thesis addresses two of the central processes which underpin the formation of galaxies: the formation of stars and the injection of energy into the interstellar medium from supernovae, called feedback. In her work Claudia Lagos has completely overhauled the treatment of these processes in simulations of galaxy formation. Her thesis makes two major breakthroughs, and represents the first major steps forward in these areas in more than a decade. Her work has enabled, for the first time, predictions to be made which can be compared against new observations which probe the neutral gas content of galaxies, opening up a completely novel way to constrain the models. The treatment of feedback from supernovae, and how this removes material from the interstellar medium, is also likely to have a lasting impact on the field. Claudia Lagos Ph.D. thesis was nominated by the Institute for Computational Cosmology at Durham University as an outstanding Ph.D. thesis 2012.
This book offers a comprehensive review of multilabel techniques widely used to classify and label texts, pictures, videos and music in the Internet. A deep review of the specialized literature on the field includes the available software needed to work with this kind of data. It provides the user with the software tools needed to deal with multilabel data, as well as step by step instruction on how to use them. The main topics covered are:
o The special characteristics of multi-labeled data and the metrics available to measure them.o The importance of taking advantage of label correlations to improve the results.o The different approaches followed to face multi-label classification.o The preprocessing techniques applicable to multi-label datasets.o The available software tools to work with multi-label data.
This book is beneficial for professionals and researchers in a variety of fields because of the wide range of potential applications for multilabel classification. Besides its multiple applications to classify different types of online information, it is also useful in many other areas, such as genomics and biology. No previous knowledge about the subject is required. The book introduces all the needed concepts to understand multilabel data characterization, treatment and evaluation.
This book contains papers based on talks given at the International Conference Dynamical Systems: 100 years after Poincaré held at the University of Oviedo, Gijón in Spain, September 2012. It provides an overview of the state of the art in the study of dynamical systems. This book covers a broad range of topics, focusing on discrete and continuous dynamical systems, bifurcation theory, celestial mechanics, delay difference and differential equations, Hamiltonian systems and also the classic challenges in planar vector fields. It also details recent advances and new trends in the field, including applications to a wide range of disciplines such as biology, chemistry, physics and economics. The memory of Henri Poincaré, who laid the foundations of the subject, inspired this exploration of dynamical systems. In honor of this remarkable mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer and philosopher, the authors have made a special effort to place the reader at the frontiers of current knowledge in the discipline.
How have social media in emerging economies evolved differently from the rest of the world? According to studies and anecdotal evidence, innovations in the use of social media tools occur more frequently in emerging economies than they do in developed markets. The aim of this volume is to show that in emerging regions (such as China, India, and South America) where the participation of stakeholders in the circuit of social media is more active (i.e., greater frequency of contacts and creativity in the elaboration of contents), organizations not only are involved in a set of exchange relations with other social actors but are also embedded in a network of dynamic relationships. The authors utilize social network analysis to determine how entrepreneurs in emerging economies identify their most beneficial social contacts and use those contacts to leverage the resources needed for their enterprises, revealing new insights on the process of business creation and economic development in the networked age.
The book will be focused on the three most important aspects of food packaging: Modeling, Materials and Packaging Strategies. The modeling section will provide a complete overview of mass transport phenomena in polymers intended for food packaging applications. The materials section will cover the most interesting problem-solving solutions in the field of food packaging, i.e., low environmental impact active films with antimicrobial activity. Lastly, the packaging section will provide an overview of the most recent approaches used to prolong the shelf life of several food products.
This book tackles the problem of overshoot and undershoot in blood glucose levels caused by delay in the effects of carbohydrate consumption and insulin administration. The ideas presented here will be very important in maintaining the welfare of insulin-dependent diabetics and avoiding the damaging effects of unpredicted swings in blood glucose - accurate prediction enables the implementation of counter-measures. The glucose prediction algorithms described are also a key and critical ingredient of automated insulin delivery systems, the so-called "artificial pancreas".
The authors address the topic of blood-glucose prediction from medical, scientific and technological points of view. Simulation studies are utilized for complementary analysis but the primary focus of this book is on real applications, using clinical data from diabetic subjects.
/> The text details the current state of the art by surveying prediction algorithms, and then moves beyond it with the most recent advances in data-based modeling of glucose metabolism. The topic of performance evaluation is discussed and the relationship of clinical and technological needs and goals examined with regard to their implications for medical devices employing prediction algorithms. Practical and theoretical questions associated with such devices and their solutions are highlighted.
This book shows researchers interested in biomedical device technology and control researchers working with predictive algorithms how incorporation of predictive algorithms into the next generation of portable glucose measurement can make treatment of diabetes safer and more efficient.
Modern imaging methods have made it possible to detect breast cancer at an earlier stage than in the past. Nevertheless, a large majority of suspicious findings at screening subsequently prove to be benign. It is therefore important to be able to identify benign lesions in a manner that is reliable, tissue sparing, patient friendly, and cost-effective. More than 70% of breast biopsies can now be performed using minimally invasive procedures that meet these criteria. This book examines in detail vacuum-assisted minimally invasive breast biopsy systems (ATEC, EnCor, Intact, Mammotome and Vacora), stereotactic systems, MRI-guided procedures, and ductoscopy. Further chapters are devoted to the pathology of the breast tissue obtained using these procedures, their limitations, the implications of recent advances in breast imaging, and the results of cost-benefit analyses. The closing chapter provides a systematic review and meta-analysis of recent data.