« Peu à peu, le supplicié défaillait, se rapetissait, s'anéantissait mais dressait courageusement avec la complicité de ses amis, le panorama de sa future peine. En bon comédien, il réserva le meilleur pour la fin : lorsqu'il se tint le bas-ventre dans un fou rire général ce fut Têlé qui conclut :
-Mais oui Ayité, demain tu ne seras plus Ayité.
Alors le pitre se laissa choir si lourdement que les rires se figèrent :
- L'homme est tombé, gémit le mort
-Aidons le à se relever, dirent les autre, tous ensemble »
La diplomatie commerciale de la Chine résulte d'un processus complexe. Depuis son accession à l'OMC en 2001, la Chine a affirmé à plusieurs reprises sa confiance et son optimisme pour le système commercial multilatéral. Or, comme tous les grands pays, sa diplomatie commerciale ne se limite pas au multilatéralisme, elle comporte aussi une très forte propension vis-à-vis du régionalisme et du bilatéralisme. Plus récemment, le projet dit des « Nouvelles Routes de la Soie » lancé en automne 2013, est devenu la stratégie centrale de la diplomatie commerciale chinoise à l'ère de Xi Jinping, qui a pour objectif de promouvoir la coopération régionale, et de renforcer l'influence économique et politique de la Chine dans les pays riverains.
The theory, methodology, technology, and achievements of research on botanical gardens worldwide are for the first time systematically reviewed and summarized, and form the foundation of Botanical Garden Science, PHYTOHORTOLOGY.
Chapters 1-8, as Part One, are the "General Introduction and Fundamental Theories and Principles of Botanical Garden Science, PHYTOHORTOLOGY," and Chapters 9-11, as Part Two, are the text for "Individual Botanical
Major achievements in botanical gardens, including research on plant introduction and acclimatization, economic plants, and environmental plants, were presented in this book. Principles and methods for plant conservation in botanical gardens were suggested.
Based on the achievements of the authors' studies of innovations in concepts, theories and practice on plant introduction and acclimatization, ex-situ conservation and stress cultivation of medicinal plants, and plant diversity conservation and utilization in cities were presented.
Owing to the importance of visualization, more than 2,000 pictures were selected for this book to show and transfer the information, thought, feelings, and inspiration that could not be expressed by words and text alone.
In addition, there are introductions to more than 200 individual botanical gardens all over the world in order to allow readers to easily recognize those botanical gardens, and to deepen their feelings and understanding as well as to create the thought leap in their minds. Many of those pictures were especially provided by botanical gardens both domestic and abroad.
This book is appropriate for readers including those who work in botanical gardens, on plant conservation, for landscape and scenery areas and natural protected land, on city construction, on landscape art and architecture, in gardening and landscaping, on education, and policy makers and administration leaders.
This English version is translated from the Chinese version published in 2005.
This book gathers the proceedings of the ISRM 2017, the fifth IFToMM International Symposium on Robotics and Mechatronics, which was jointly organised by the School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics at Western Sydney University, Australia and by the IFToMM Technical Committee on Robotics and Mechatronics. The respective contributions showcase the latest advances, trends and future challenges in Computer Modelling and Simulation, Kinematics and Dynamics of Multi-Body Systems, Advanced Dynamics and Control Methods, Linkages and Mechanical Controls, Parallel Manipulators, Mechanism Design, Sensors and Actuators, Mobile Robotics: Navigation and Motion Planning, Bio-inspired Robotics, Micro/Nano-Robotics and Complex Robotic Systems.
This book presents a comparative reconstruction of the common phonology of the Chinese dialects using representative data from living dialects. The resulting phonology includes all categories and phonological distinctions that are represented in the dialect data. It departs from the tradition of using philological sources and non-Chinese borrowings as the basis for a reconstructed system. Based on a strict comparative methodology, the phonology presented encapsulates the shared phonology of the dialects and reflects the real-world distinctions and categories found in the living dialects. For example, the initials preserve the tripartite division that includes voiced obstruents seen in Wú dialects; the finals are comparatively drawn based on the collective dialect data; and the syllable codas preserve the three-way contrasts of consonant stop endings seen in the Cantonese dialects. The data presented allows readers to observe the basis for all of the distinction and categories included in the common phonology and the relationship of that phonology to all of the dialects, and as a result to identify the dialects' disparate developments and evolution. The English translation also includes innovative elements that render it even more useful for researchers than the Chinese original. The book is primarily intended for scholars and researchers investigating the Chinese dialects and their relationships, and the history of Chinese. It is also useful for scholars of Chinese history and literature who need a handy resource providing essential information on the historical phonology of Chinese.
This book offers an essential overview of computational conformal geometry applied to fundamental problems in specific engineering fields. It introduces readers to conformal geometry theory and discusses implementation issues from an engineering perspective.The respective chapters explore fundamental problems in specific fields of application, and detail how computational conformal geometric methods can be used to solve them in a theoretically elegant and computationally efficient way. The fields covered include computer graphics, computer vision, geometric modeling, medical imaging, and wireless sensor networks. Each chapter concludes with a summary of the material covered and suggestions for further reading, and numerous illustrations and computational algorithms complement the text.The book draws on courses given by the authors at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Tsinghua University, and will be of interest to senior undergraduates, graduates and researchers in computer science, applied mathematics, and engineering.
The finite difference method (FDM) hasbeen used tosolve differential equation systems for centuries. The FDM works well for problems of simple geometry and was widely used before the invention of the much more efficient, robust finite element method (FEM). FEM is now widely used in handling problems with complex geometry. Currently, we are using and developing even more powerful numerical techniques aiming to obtain more accurate approximate solutions in a more convenient manner for even more complex systems. The meshfree or meshless method is one such phenomenal development in the past decade, and is the subject of this book. There are many MFree methods proposed so far for different applications. Currently, three monographs on MFree methods have been published. Mesh Free Methods, Moving Beyond the Finite Element Method d by GR Liu (2002) provides a systematic discussion on basic theories, fundamentals for MFree methods, especially on MFree weak-form methods. It provides a comprehensive record of well-known MFree methods and the wide coverage of applications of MFree methods to problems of solids mechanics (solids, beams, plates, shells, etc.) as well as fluid mechanics. The Meshless Local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) Method d by Atluri and Shen (2002) provides detailed discussions of the meshfree local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) method and itsvariations. Formulations and applications of MLPG are well addressed in their book.
Structural Bioinformatics was the first major effort to show the application of the principles and basic knowledge of the larger field of bioinformatics to questions focusing on macromolecular structure, such as the prediction of protein structure and how proteins carry out cellular functions, and how the application of bioinformatics to these life science issues can improve healthcare by accelerating drug discovery and development. Designed primarily as a reference, the first edition nevertheless saw widespread use as a textbook in graduate and undergraduate university courses dealing with the theories and associated algorithms, resources, and tools used in the analysis, prediction, and theoretical underpinnings of DNA, RNA, and proteins.This new edition contains not only thorough updates of the advances in structural bioinformatics since publication of the first edition, but also features eleven new chapters dealing with frontier areas of high scientific impact, including: sampling and search techniques; use of mass spectrometry; genome functional annotation; and much more.Offering detailed coverage for practitioners while remaining accessible to the novice, Structural Bioinformatics, Second Edition is a valuable resource and an excellent textbook for a range of readers in the bioinformatics and advanced biology fields.Praise for the previous edition:"This book is a gold mine of fundamental and practical information in an area not previously well represented in book form." Biochemistry and Molecular Education"... destined to become a classic reference work for workers at all levels in structural bioinformatics...recommended with great enthusiasm for educators, researchers, and graduate students." BAMBED"...a useful and timely summary of a rapidly expanding field." Nature Structural Biology"...a terrific job in this timely creation of a compilation of articles that appropriately addresses this issue." Briefings in Bioinformatics
The book focuses on the application of nanotechnologies in scaffold-guided tissue regeneration and in drug delivery systems for use in immunotherapy and overcoming drug resistance in cancer treatment. It covers a variety of topics, including nanomaterials for immunomodulation and immnunotherapy; molecular studies on self-assembly for peptides and DNA and related applications in tumor diagnosis and therapeutics and against human pathogenic bacteria; magnetic and conductive scaffolds for guiding tissue regeneration; multiple functions of magnetic nanoparticles in drug delivery and regenerative medicine; and re-purposing of traditional medicine in nano-formulations. In addition, it discusses common effects of nanomaterials, including reactive oxygen species and protein corona. Providing valuable insights and the presenting the latest research advances, the book allows readers to gain a systematic understanding of the topic.
This book provides the fundamental knowledge of the classical matching theory problems. It builds up the bridge between the matching theory and the 5G wireless communication resource allocation problems. The potentials and challenges of implementing the semi-distributive matching theory framework into the wireless resource allocations are analyzed both theoretically and through implementation examples. Academics, researchers, engineers, and so on, who are interested in efficient distributive wireless resource allocation solutions, will find this book to be an exceptional resource.
Systematically introduces self-healing control theory for distribution networks, rigorously supported by simulations and applications
o A comprehensive introduction to self-healing control for distribution networks
o Details the construction of self-healing control systems with simulations and applications
o Provides key principles for new generation protective relay and network protection
o Demonstrates how to monitor and manage system performance
o Highlights practical implementation of self-healing control technologies, backed by rigorous research data and simulations
Here, front-line researchers in the booming field of nanobiotechnology describe the most promising approaches for bioinspired drug delivery, encompassing small molecule delivery, delivery of therapeutic proteins and gene delivery. The carriers surveyed include polymeric, proteinaceous and lipid systems on the nanoscale, with a focus on their adaptability for different cargoes and target tissues.
Thanks to the broad coverage of carriers as well as cargoes discussed, every researcher in the field will find valuable information here.
The book focuses on various detection targets applied in single cell studies, including tumor tissue cells, circulating tumor cells (CTCs), disseminated tumor cells (DTCs), circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and cancer stem cells (CSCs). It also discusses and compares detection methods using these detection targets in different fields to reveal single cell biomedical functions. The volume focuses not only on the methods already been established and validated, and also the methods newly developed. The book also highlights the importance and potential of single cell biomedicine in the development and validation of precision medicine strategies. It is useful for researchers and students in the field of cell biology, molecular medicine and precision medicine etc.
This book provides a comprehensive overview of the exact boundary controllability of nodal profile, a new kind of exact boundary controllability stimulated by some practical applications. This kind of controllability is useful in practice as it does not require any precisely given final state to be attained at a suitable time t=T by means of boundary controls, instead it requires the state to exactly fit any given demand (profile) on one or more nodes after a suitable time t=T by means of boundary controls. In this book we present a general discussion of this kind of controllability for general 1-D first order quasilinear hyperbolic systems and for general 1-D quasilinear wave equations on an interval as well as on a tree-like network using a modular-structure construtive method, suggested in LI Tatsien's monograph "Controllability and Observability for Quasilinear Hyperbolic Systems"(2010), and we establish a complete theory on the local exact boundary controllability of nodal profile for 1-D quasilinear hyperbolic systems.
This book gives readers in-depth know-how on methods of state estimation for nonlinear control systems. It starts with an introduction to dynamic control systems and system states and a brief description of the Kalman filter. In the following chapters, various state estimation techniques for nonlinear systems are discussed, including the extended, unscented and cubature Kalman filters. The cubature Kalman filter and its variants are introduced in particular detail because of their efficiency and their ability to deal with systems with Gaussian and/or non-Gaussian noise. The book also discusses information-filter and square-root-filtering algorithms, useful for state estimation in some real-time control system design problems. A number of case studies are included in the book to illustrate the application of various nonlinear filtering algorithms. Nonlinear Filtering is written for academic and industrial researchers, engineers and research students who are interested in nonlinear control systems analysis and design. The chief features of the book include: dedicated coverage of recently developed nonlinear, Jacobian-free, filtering algorithms; examples illustrating the use of nonlinear filtering algorithms in real-world applications; detailed derivation and complete algorithms for nonlinear filtering methods, which help readers to a fundamental understanding and easier coding of those algorithms; and MATLAB® codes associated with case-study applications, which can be downloaded from the Springer Extra Materials website.
This book introduces comprehensive fundamentals, numerical simulations and experimental methods of electrification of particulates entrained multiphase flows. The electrifications of two particulate forms, liquid droplets and solid particles, are firstly described together. Liquid droplets can be charged under preset or associated electric fields, while solid particles can be charged through contact. Different charging ways in gas (liquid)-liquid or gas-solid multiphase flows are summarized, including ones that are beneficial to industrial processes, such as electrostatic precipitation, electrostatic spraying, and electrostatic separation, etc., ones harmful for shipping and powder industry, and ones occurring in natural phenomenon, such as wind-blown sand and thunderstorm. This book offers theoretical references to the control and utilization of the charging or charged particulates in multiphase flows as well.
This book gathers a selection of peer-reviewed papers presented at the Tiangong-2 Data Utilization Conference, which was held in Beijing, China, in December 2018. As the first space laboratory in China, Tiangong-2 carries 3 new types of remote sensing payloads - the Wide-band Imaging Spectrometer (WIS), Three-dimensional Imaging Microwave Altimeter (TIMA), and Multi-band Ultraviolet Edge Imaging Spectrometer (MUEIS) - for observing the Earth. The spectrum of the WIS covers 18 bands, from visible to thermal infrared, with a swath of 300km. The TIMA is the first-ever system to use interferometric imaging radar altimeter (InIRA) technology to measure sea surface height and land topography at near-nadir angles with a wide swath. In turn, the MUEIS is the world's first large-field atmospheric detector capable of quasi-synchronously detecting the characteristics of ultraviolet limb radiation in the middle atmosphere. The Earth observation data obtained by Tiangong-2 has attracted many research groups and been applied in such diverse areas as land resources, water resources, climate change, environmental monitoring, agriculture, forestry, ecology, oceanography, meteorology and so on. The main subjects considered in this proceedings volume include: payload design, data processing, data service and application. It also provides a comprehensive introduction to the research results gleaned by engineers, researchers and scientists throughout the lifecycle of the Tiangong-2 Earth observation data, which will improve the payload development and enhance remote sensing data applications.
Robot intelligence has become a major focus of intelligent robotics. Recent innovation in computational intelligence including fuzzy learning, neural networks, evolutionary computation and classical Artificial Intelligence provides sufficient theoretical and experimental foundations for enabling robots to undertake a variety of tasks with reasonable performance. This book reflects the recent advances in the field from an advanced knowledge processing perspective; there have been attempts to solve knowledge based information explosion constraints by integrating computational intelligence in the robotics context.
Based on China's recently released 2010 population census data, this edited volume analyses the most recent demographic trends in China, in the context of significant social and economic upheavals. The editor and the expert contributors describe the main features of China's demography, and focus on the details of this latest phase of its demographic transition.The book explores such striking characteristics of China's demography as the changing age and sex population structure; recent trends in marriage and divorce; fertility trends with a focus on sex imbalance at birth; the demography of the ethnic minorities and recent mortality trends by sex.Analysing China's Population: Social Change in a New Demographic Era examines and assesses the impact of changes that in the coming decades will be crucial for individuals, and the larger society and economy of the nation.
This book is the second volume of the proceedings of the 4th GeoShanghai International Conference that was held on May 27 - 30, 2018. The book, entitled "Fundamentals of Soil Behaviours", presents the recent advances and technology in the understanding and modelling of fundamentals of soil's behaviours. The subject of this book covers a wide range of topics related to soil behaviours in geotechnical engineering, geoenvironmental engineering and transportation engineering. The state-of-the-art theories, methodologies and findings in the related topics are included. This book may benefit researchers and scientists from the academic fields of soil and rock mechanics, geotechnical engineering, geoenvironmental engineering, transportation engineering, geology, mining and energy, as well as practical engineers from industry.Each of the papers included in this book received at least two positive peer reviews. The editors would like to express their sincerest appreciation to all of the anonymous reviewers all over the world, for their diligent work.
The increasing global demand for energy requires a versatile approach, prompting many researchers to focus on renewable bioenergy from different biomasses, especially cellulosic biomass. Such biomasses can be agricultural wastes, municipal wastes or direct harvests from high-yield energy corps. If properly pre-treated, the subsequent enzyme hydrolysis step is much more effective and can effectively minimises the waste disposal. Green Biomass Pretreatment for Biofuels Production reviews a range of pretreatment methods such as ammonium fiber explosion, steam explosion, dilute acid hydrolysis, alkali hydrolysis, and supercritical carbon dioxide explosion focusing on their final sugar yields from hemicellulose, glucose yields from cellulose, as well as on their feasibilities in bioenergy production processes at various scales. This book emphasises the tactical mobile and on-farm scales applications that use green pretreatments and processing technologies without the need of on-site waste treatment. Because of the varieties of different biomasses, no single pretreatment is expected to be the universal choice. Some of the pretreatment methods present niche applications are also discussed.
Entransy in Phase-Change Systems summarizes recent developments in the area of entransy, especially on phase-change processes. This book covers new developments in the area including the great potential for energy saving for process industries, decreasing carbon dioxide emissions, reducing energy bills and improving overall efficiency of systems. This concise volume is an ideal book for engineers and scientists in energy-related industries.
For design purposes one needs to relate the structure of proposed materials to their NLO (nonlinear optical) and other properties, which is a situation where theoretical approaches can be very helpful in providing suggestions for candidate systems that subsequently can be synthesized and studied experimentally. This brief describes the quantum-mechanical treatment of the response to one or more external oscillating electric fields for molecular and macroscopic, crystalline systems. To calculate NLO properties of large systems, a linear scaling generalized elongation method for the efficient and accurate calculation is introduced. The reader should be aware that this treatment is particularly feasible for complicated three-dimensional and/or delocalized systems that are intractable when applied to conventional or other linear scaling methods.
This book presents a method for replicating natural butterfly wing scales using a variety of metals for state-of-the-art applications requiring high surface-enhancement properties. During the past decade, three dimensional (3D) sub-micrometer structures have attracted considerable attention for optical applications. These 3D subwavelength metallic structures are, however, difficult to prepare. By contrast, the 3D superstructures of butterfly wing scales, with more than 175 000 morphologies, are efficiently engineered by nature. Natural butterfly wing scales feature 3D sub-micrometer structures that are superior to many human designs in terms of structural complexity, reproducibility, and cost. Such natural wealth offers a versatile chemical route via the replication of these structures into functional metals.A single versatile chemical route can be used to produce butterfly scales in seven different metals. These synthesized structures have the potential for catalytic (Au, Pt, Pd), thermal (Ag, Au, Cu), electrical (Au, Cu, Ag), magnetic (Co, Ni), and optical (Au, Ag, Cu) applications. Plasmon-active Au, Cu, Ag butterfly scales have exhibited excellent properties in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The Au scales as SERS substrates have ten times the analyte detection sensitivity and are one-tenth the cost of their human-designed commercial counterparts (KlariteTM). Preliminary mechanisms of these surface-enhancement phenomena are also reviewed.