Insects, pests and weeds are responsible for substantial loss of crops and reduced food supplies, poorer quality of agricultural products, economic hardship for growers and processor. Generally, chemical control methods are neither always economical nor are they effective and may have associated unwanted health, safety and environmental risks. Biological control involves use of beneficial biological agents to control pests and offers an environmental friendly approach to the effective management of plant diseases and weeds. The chapters are written by well recognized group leaders in the field. This book provides a comprehensive account of interaction of host and pests, and development of biological control agents for practical applications in crops management utilizing inherent defence mechanism, induced stimulation and biological control agents. The contents are divided into the following sections: General biology of plant defence, Use of natural compounds for biological control, Use of biological agents, Mechanism of action and Commercial aspects. The book will be useful for academicians, researcher and industries involved in study and manufacturing these products.
This book discusses the interpretation of mechanical ventilator waveforms. Each page shows a screenshot from a real patient and explains one or two messages. It starts with basic information about the waveforms and goes on to address passive and spontaneous ventilation, non-invasive ventilation and specific measurements such as pressure-volume curves and esophageal pressure. Step by step, readers learn about advanced monitoring of patient-ventilator synchronisation. This unique teaching approach has been adapted to this topic. Covering the entire field of mechanical ventilation, it is of particular interest to physicians and respiratory therapist working in emergency departments, anesthesiology, intensive care and respiratory units.
This open access book looks at the migration of Southern European EU citizens (from Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece) who move to Northern European Member States (Belgium, France, Germany, United Kingdom) in response to the global economic crisis.
Its objective is twofold. First, it identifies the scale and nature of this new Southern European emigration and examines these migrants' socio-economic integration in Northern European destination countries. This is achieved through an analysis of the most recent data on flows and profiles of this new labour force using sending-country and receiving-country databases. Second, it looks at the politics and policies of immigration, both from the perspective of the sending- and receiving-countries. Analysing the policies and debates about these new flows in the home and host countries' this book shows how contentious the issue of intra-EU mobility has recently become in the context of the crisis when the right for EU citizens to move within the EU had previously not been questioned for decades. Overall, the strength of this edited volume is that it compiles in a systematic way quantitative and qualitative analysis of these renewed Southern European migration flows and draws the lessons from this changing climate on EU migration.
The chapters in this volume stress the need for advances in theoretical understanding to go hand-in-hand with the widespread practical application of forecasting in industry. Forecasting and time series prediction have enjoyed considerable attention over the last few decades, fostered by impressive advances in observational capabilities and measurement procedures. On June 5-7, 2013, an international Workshop on Industry Practices for Forecasting was held in Paris, France, organized and supported by the OSIRIS Department of Electricité de France Research and Development Division. In keeping with tradition, both theoretical statistical results and practical contributions on this active field of statistical research and on forecasting issues in a rapidly evolving industrial environment are presented. The volume reflects the broad spectrum of the conference, including 16 articles contributed by specialists in various areas. The material compiled is broad in scope and ranges from new findings on forecasting in industry and in time series, on nonparametric and functional methods and on on-line machine learning for forecasting, to the latest developments in tools for high dimension and complex data analysis.
The third edition of this handbook is designed to provide a broad coverage of the concepts, implementations, and applications in metaheuristics. The book's chapters serve as stand-alone presentations giving both the necessary underpinnings as well as practical guides for implementation. The nature of metaheuristics invites an analyst to modify basic methods in response to problem characteristics, past experiences, and personal preferences, and the chapters in this handbook are designed to facilitate this process as well. This new edition has been fully revised and features new chapters on swarm intelligence and automated design of metaheuristics from flexible algorithm frameworks. The authors who have contributed to this volume represent leading figures from the metaheuristic community and are responsible for pioneering contributions to the fields they write about. Their collective work has significantly enriched the field of optimization in general and combinatorial optimization in particular.Metaheuristics are solution methods that orchestrate an interaction between local improvement procedures and higher level strategies to create a process capable of escaping from local optima and performing a robust search of a solution space. In addition, many new and exciting developments and extensions have been observed in the last few years. Hybrids of metaheuristics with other optimization techniques, like branch-and-bound, mathematical programming or constraint programming are also increasingly popular. On the front of applications, metaheuristics are now used to find high-quality solutions to an ever-growing number of complex, ill-defined real-world problems, in particular combinatorial ones. This handbook should continue to be a great reference for researchers, graduate students, as well as practitioners interested in metaheuristics.
This book provides a self-contained presentation of the statistical tools required for evaluating public programs, as advocated by many governments, the World Bank, the European Union, and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. After introducing the methodological framework of program evaluation, the first chapters are devoted to the collection, elementary description and multivariate analysis of data as well as the estimation of welfare changes. The book then successively presents the tools of ex-ante methods (financial analysis, budget planning, cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness and multi-criteria evaluation) and ex-post methods (benchmarking, experimental and quasi-experimental evaluation). The step-by-step approach and the systematic use of numerical illustrations equip readers to handle the statistics of program evaluation. It not only offers practitioners from public administrations, consultancy firms and nongovernmental organizations the basic tools and advanced techniques used in program assessment, it is also suitable for executive management training, upper undergraduate and graduate courses, as well as for self-study.
This book provides information to the state of art of research in nanotechnology and nano medicine and risks of nano technology. It covers an interdisciplinary and very wide scope of the latest fundamental research status and industrial applications of nano technologies ranging from nano physics, nano chemistry to biotechnology and toxicology. It provides information to last legislation of nano usage and potential social impact too. The book contains also a reference list of major European research centers and associated universities offering licences and master of nano matter. For clarity and attractivity, the book has many illustrations and specific inserts to complete the understanding of the scientific texts.
This book offers a modern diagnostic and therapeutic approach to the pediatric patient with urinary problems due to spinal cord pathologies. It represents an unique guide for all the specialists involved in the management of this pathology. All the contributors are world leader experts in clinical research and in surgical practice of this pathologic condition. The book covers all the aspects of NBD in children from the clinical and diagnostic evaluation to the pharmacological and surgical treatment. Pediatric surgeons, pediatricians, genereal physicians, therapists, students that will read this book will have a clear, easy and up-to- date review of the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures adopted today.
Through this monograph, the pharmaceutical chemist gets familiar with the possibilities electroanalytical methods offer for validated analyses of drug compounds and pharmaceuticals. The presentation focuses on the techniques most frequently used in practical applications, particularly voltammetry and polarography. The authors present the information in such a way that the reader can judge whether the application of such techniques offers advantages for solving a particular analytical problem. Basics of individual electroanalytical techniques are outlined using as simple language as possible, with a minimum of mathematical apparatus. For each electroanalytical technique, the physical and chemical processes as well as the instrumentation are described. The authors also cover procedures for the identification of electroactive groups and the chemical and electrochemical processes involved.Understanding the principles of such processes is essential for finding optimum analytical conditions in the most reliable way. Added to this is the validation of such analytical procedures. A particularly valuable feature of this book are extensive tables listing numerous validated examples of practical applications. Various Indices according to the drug type, the electroactive group and the type of method as well as a subject and author index are also provided for easy reference.
This book highlights advances and prospects of a highly versatile and dynamic research field: Therapeutic ultrasound. Leading experts in the field describe a wide range of topics related to the development of therapeutic ultrasound (i.e., high intensity focused ultrasound, microbubble-assisted ultrasound drug delivery, low intensity pulsed ultrasound, ultrasound-sensitive nanocarriers), ranging from the biophysical concepts (i.e., tissue ablation, drug and gene delivery, neuromodulation) to therapeutic applications (i.e., chemotherapy, sonodynamic therapy, sonothrombolysis, immunotherapy, lithotripsy, vaccination). This book is an indispensable source of information for students, researchers and clinicians dealing with non-invasive image-guided ultrasound-based therapeutic interventions in the fields of oncology, neurology, cardiology and nephrology.
This book explains how to promote and prolong "healthy ageing," which constitutes maintaining daily functioning and well-being until the end of life.In this context, the editor of the book and the international team of authors, all of whom are experts on the various aspects of ageing, demonstrate the value of this new approach in clinical practice. The systematic integration of a functional assessment, if not a complete and comprehensive geriatric assessment, is fundamental in daily clinical practice. Identifying risk factors at midlife will help to promote health at any age. Moreover, randomized control trials are making it increasingly clear that interventions could help ageing and elderly adults enjoy their remaining years without disability. Indeed, wellbeing will also increase, allowing elderly adults to stay independent until a very advanced age. The book also shows how considerable societal benefits can be easily forecast when more lifetime is spent without disability, followed by a dignified end of life. This book will be of interest to all medical doctors, general practitioners and organ specialists as well as geriatricians who want to have a complete overview of what healthy ageing means.
A significant amount of new information concerning epidemiology, medical and surgical therapy for patients with incontinence has appeared over the past five years. Importantly, with recently introduced minimally invasive technologies and recent development in the medical management, the treatment of incontinence has changed significantly.
This book covers the complete field of uncomplicated incontinence ranging from the current concepts, surgical management to medical management, with a special focus on the latest diagnostic tests, surgery including laparoscopy and medical therapies. Moreover, special topics are included such as prolapse, male incontinence, economic aspects, and costs and education.
The book is THE state-of-the-art reference work on continence management for all urologists as well as gynecologists.
After introductory chapters devoted to the safe production and distribution of vaccines, the book addresses the question of adult vaccination in the framework of a life-course approach to vaccination. It presents the proceedings of multidisciplinary expert discussions with an excellent summary of the current state of knowledge on adult vaccination in various diseases, as well as an overview of the professionals involved and the obstacles to achieving greater vaccine uptake, and how these may be addressed.
The book systematically discusses the major vaccine-preventable diseases, as well as regulatory issues in vaccine provision, and presents the results of an expert meeting designed to identify the obstacles to vaccination, and solutions for addressing these barriers. It goes on to extend the discussion beyond the traditional boundaries of human health to encompass the "one health" concept.
The book is intended for all those with an interest in vaccination, including physicians (from a wide range of disciplines including geriatrics/gerontology, infectious diseases, pediatrics, internal medicine, and other non-organ specialties), other healthcare professionals, pharmacists, representatives of the pharmaceutical industry and regulatory bodies (EMEA, national authorities), policymakers, the media and the general public.
Since the 2008 economic crisis, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have faced serious financial problems and have been looking to financial institutions and governments for solutions and new proposals to address these issues. This book examines the new challenge in which firms receive sustainable funding that is in alignment with the company's spending capacity. The purpose of this book is to examine the main theoretical issues and practices regarding entrepreneurship and finance and their impact on performance, innovation and economic growth. It analyzes the fundamental aspects of entrepreneurship and studies ways in which financial institutions can better fulfill their primary function of feeding capital to businesses and the economy as a whole. Entrepreneurship and finance are fundamental to achieving success in economic and social activities. SMEs' existence and development depend on the initiatives of entrepreneurship and access to resources, especially those of a financial nature. During the recent economic crisis, several new financing instruments have appeared, especially with structures designed for helping SMEs make their way out of the recession. This book explores some of these tools in various global economies, such as France and Spain, providing an international, multidimensional perspective.
This book on the psychology of white collar criminals discusses various cases of financial crime, while also attempting to delve into the minds of the criminals in question. The literature on this topic is growing as it gains momentum in the scientific field, as a result of the extremely negative impact white collar crime has on its victims. Because there is considerable damage and vulnerability from these crimes, it is important to begin to classify them, and to understand the minds of those that commit these offenses. While the current literature is not extensive, this work provides a closer look into the various ethical and legal facets of financial crime, and helps to uncover the social, psychological and neurobiological factors that intersect in the minds of those criminals.
This book provides a detailed guide to the use and interpretation of color Doppler ultrasound, CT, and MR imaging in patients with gynecological disorders. The advantages and limitations of each modality in imaging different pathologies are clearly presented, and advice is provided on the most appropriate option when ultrasound does not permit a definite diagnosis or fails to determine the precise extension of a lesion. Throughout, emphasis is placed on the importance of microscopic and macroscopic findings for a full understanding of the radiological appearances, and relevant points from the basic sciences are also highlighted. Special attention is paid to issues of differential diagnosis and imaging results that are characteristic of a particular type of lesion. The authors are recognized experts in the field who draw upon their considerable experience to provide an up-to-date reference book highly relevant to everyday clinical practice.
Documenting the latest research in the field of different pathogenic organisms, this book presents the current scenario about promising antimicrobials in the following areas: Part I. Plants as source of antibacterials, Part II. Naturally occurring antifungal natural products, Part III. Antiparasitic natural products, Part IV. Antiviral natural products. Renowned scientists from the globe have been selected as authors to contribute chapters. Use of plants for various ailments is as old as human civilization and continuous efforts are being made to improve medicinal plants or to product their bioactive secondary metabolites in high amounts through various technologies. About 200,000 natural products of plant origin are known and many more are being identified from higher plants and micro-organisms. Some plants based drugs are used since centuries and there is no alternative medicine for many such drugs as cardiac glycosides. Drug discovery from medicinal plants or marine micro-organisms continues to provide an important source of new drug leads. Research on new antibacterials represents a real and timely challenge of this century, particularly for the treatment of infections caused by clinical isolates that show multidrug resistance. The main microorganisms involved in the resistance process have been identified and given the acronym ESKAPE for Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumanii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae. Multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis including highly drug-resistant strains (XDR-TB) has also emerged as one of the most important clinical challenges of this century. Plants of diverse taxa and marine micro-organisms are rich source of these antimicrobials. An attempt has been made to compile the recent information about natural sources of antibacterials and their sustainable utilization. Increased panic of these pathogens warrants a growing demand for research to undertake the threat of multidrug resistance. The search for new antifungal, antiparasitic and antiviral natural products is far from devoid of interest. According to the WHO report in 2013, malaria still represents some 207 million cases worldwide and more than 3 billion of people are still exposed to this risk. Similarly, about 350 million people are considered at risk of contracting leishmaniasis. The fight against some viruses also requires that the research on natural products continue. For example, even if an antiretroviral with direct action was recently approved in Europe in 2013, its high cost does not allow to offer it to an exposed population in countries where the cost of drugs remains a problem for a large part of the population. These books are useful to researchers and students in microbiology, biotechnology, pharmacology, chemistry and biology as well as medical professionals.
This volume addresses the conditions allowing the transformation of specific children's rights into capabilities in settings as different as children's parliaments, organized leisure activities, contexts of vulnerability, children in care. It addresses theoretical questions linked to children's agency and reflexivity, education, the life cycle perspective, child participation, evolving capabilities, and citizenship. The volume highlights important issues that have to be taken into account for the implementation of human rights and the development of peoples' capabilities. The focus on children's capabilities along a rights-based approach is an inspiring perspective that researchers and practitioners in the field of human rights would like to deepen.
This book explores the design of ultra wideband (UWB) technology for wireless body-area networks (WBAN). The authors describe a novel implementation of WBAN sensor nodes that use UWB for data transmission and narrow band for data reception, enabling low power sensor nodes, with high data rate capability. The discussion also includes power efficient, medium access control (MAC) protocol design for UWB based WBAN applications and the authors present a MAC protocol in which a guaranteed delivery mechanism is utilized to transfer data with high priority. Readers will also benefit from this book's feasibility analysis of the UWB technology for human implant applications through the study of electromagnetic and thermal power absorption of human tissue that is exposed to UWB signals.
What is family farming? How can it help meet the challenges confronting the world? How can it contribute to a sustainable and more equitable development? Not only is family farming the predominant form of agriculture around the world, especially so in developing countries, it is also the agriculture of the future. By declaring 2014 the "International Year of Family Farming," the United Nations has placed this form of production at the center of debates on agricultural development. These debates are often reduced to two opposing positions. The first advocates the development of industrial or company agriculture, supposedly efficient because it follows industrial processes for market-oriented mass production. The second promotes the preservation of family farming with its close links between family and farm. The authors of this book wish to enrich the debates by helping overcome stereotypes - which often manifest through the use of terms such as "small-scale farming, subsistence farming, peasant, etc." Research work has emphatically demonstrated the great adaptability of family farming systems and their ability to meet the major challenges of tomorrow but it has also not overlooked their limitations. The authors explore the choices facing society and possible development trajectories at national and international levels, and the contribution that agriculture will have to make. They call for a recommitment of public policies in favor of family farming in developing countries and stress the importance of planning actions targeted at and tailored to the family character of agricultural models. But, above all, they highlight the need to overcome strictly sectoral rationales, by placing family farming at the core of a broader economic and social project. This book is the result of a collaborative effort led by CIRAD and encapsulates three decades of research on family farming. It will interest researchers, teachers and students, and all those involved in national and international efforts for the development of countries in the South.
This book provides a physics-oriented introduction to organogels with a comparison to polymer thermoreversible gels whenever relevant. The past decade has seen the development of a wide variety of newly-synthesized molecules that can spontaneously self-assemble or crystallize from their organic or aqueous solutions to produce fibrillar networks, namely organogels, with potential applications in organic electronics, light harvesting, bio-imaging, non-linear optics, and the like. This compact volume presents a detailed outlook of these novel molecular systems with special emphasis upon their thermodynamics, morphology, molecular structure, and rheology. The definition of these complex systems is also tackled, as well as the role of the solvent. The text features numerous temperature-phase diagrams for a variety of organogels as well as illustrations of their structures at the microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic level. A review of some potential applications is provided including hybrid functional materials with polymers and with carbon nanotubes. Throughout, discussions of theoretical developments and experimental advances are written at a level suitable for beginning graduate students through practicing researchers.
Interoperability: the ability of a system or a product to work with other systems or products without special effort from the user is a key issue in manufacturing and industrial enterprise generally. It is fundamental to the production of goods and services quickly and at low cost at the same time as maintaining levels of quality and customisation. While data exchange and IT applications are vital contributions to successful interoperability, communications and common semantics can be just as important between businesses.
Composed of more than 40 papers of international authorship, Interoperability of Enterprise Software and Applications ranges from academic research through case studies to industrial experience of interoperability. Many of the papers have examples and illustrations calculated to deepen understanding and generate new ideas.
The INTEROP-ESA'05 conference from which this book is drawn was sponsored by the European Union and the Swiss federal government under the IST research program and was further supported by International Society for Information Processing and the Association for Computing Machinery.
A concise reference to the state of the art in software interoperability, Interoperability of Enterprise Software and Applications will be of great value to engineers and computer scientists working in manufacturing and other process industries and to software engineers and electronic and manufacturing engineers working in the academic environment.
This forward-looking resource shines needed light on-and offers realistic solutions for eliminating-health disparities affecting one of the most vulnerable populations: children. Its multilevel framework identifies sources of pediatric health inequities in developmental, societal, familial, financial, and service delivery contexts and sets out innovations for breaking down and addressing longstanding concerns. Plentiful opportunities are described for reducing gaps and promoting equity at various service platforms, from locally-based improvements to systemwide tech upgrades, that can be used as models for revamping larger health policy. And the authors' long-term perspective emphasizes screening, wellness care, early intervention, and prevention strategies to support young patients in the transitions between childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. Included in this compact idea book:Disparities in child health: a review
Quality of care in pediatrics and health disparities: the increasing role of quality improvement science
Community health worker interventions
Technology-based interventions to address pediatric health disparities
Place-based strategies in promoting health equity
Future directions for a solutions-based approach
With its clear delineation of issues and priorities, and its workable recommendations for addressing them, Disparities in Child Health is a ready source of ideas and advocacy for practitioners and researchers in pediatrics, maternal and child health, and general practice/family medicine.
This first open access book in a series of three volumes provides an in-depth analysis of social protection policies that EU Member States make accessible to resident nationals, non-resident nationals and non-national residents. In doing so, it discusses different scenarios in which the interplay between nationality and residence could lead to inequalities of access to welfare. Each chapter maps the eligibility conditions for accessing social benefits, by paying particular attention to the social entitlements that migrants can claim in host countries and/or export from home countries. The book also identifies and compares recent trends of access to welfare entitlements across five policy areas: health care, unemployment, family benefits, pensions, and guaranteed minimum resources. As such this book is a valuable read to researchers, policy makers, government employees and NGO's.