This book provides basic information on the botanical diversity in the Czech Republic and relates the patterns in flora and vegetation to environmental factors, biogeographical history and human impact. Focusing on vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens, it summarizes the data on taxonomic diversity and provides details of relict, endemic, rare, alien and other biogeographically important species. Main vegetation types are characterized in terms of their structure, distribution, ecology and dynamics, emphasizing the long-term vegetation changes since the late Pleistocene, historical impact of humans on vegetation and current changes in vegetation including the impact of alien species. Special attention is paid to the conservation of threatened plant species and their habitats and ecological restoration. An account of the history of botanical research in this country is also provided. The book is illustrated with numerous maps, graphs and photographs of plant species and communities. The book is an essential reference for any biogeographer, botanist and plant ecologist who is working in Central Europe or is searching for both general and more specific information on this part of the world.