The 2012 International Conference on Applied Biotechnology (ICAB 2012) was held in Tianjin, China on October 18-19, 2012. It provides not only a platform for domestic and foreign researchers to exchange their ideas and experiences with the application-oriented research of biotechnology, but also an opportunity to promote the development and prosperity of the biotechnology industry. The proceedings of ICAB 2012 mainly focus on the world's latest scientific research and techniques in applied biotechnology, including Industrial Microbial Technology, Food Biotechnology, Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Environmental Biotechnology, Marine Biotechnology, Agricultural Biotechnology, Biological Materials and Bio-energy Technology, Advances in Biotechnology, and Future Trends in Biotechnology. These proceedings are intended for scientists and researchers engaging in applied biotechnology. Professor Pingkai Ouyang is the President of the Nanjing University of Technology, China. Professor Tongcun Zhang is the Director of the Key Laboratory of Industrial Fermentation Microbiology of the Ministry of Education at the College of Bioengineering, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, China. Dr. Samuel Kaplan is a Professor at the Department of Microbiology & Molecular Genetics at the University of Texas at Houston Medical School, Houston, Texas, USA. Dr. Bill Skarnes is a Professor at Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, United Kingdom.