This straightforward reference surveys the knowledge base on homeless, runaway, and thrown-away children and adolescents and makes concrete recommendations for policy and practice. It is a comprehensive volume, that covers new state legislation in the U.S. dealing with runaway and homeless youth. The book's ecological approach grounds readers in the demographics of this diverse population, family and other risk factors for leaving home (and alternative arrangements such as foster care), and the survival skills homeless young people use to sustain themselves. Chapters cover a gamut of physical, psychological, and social problems, from drug abuse to depression to STIs, with special attention paid to the multiple difficulties faced by LGBT street youth and street youths' experiences with the legal and justice systems.
The author also assesses established and emerging interventions used with runaway youth, and the effectiveness of policy initiatives dealing with improving conditions for youth on the streets and at risk.
Included in the coverage:
· Runaway youth at the time of their disappearance.
· Food insecurity and related problems among homeless and runaway youth.
· Substance use among homeless and runaway adolescents.
· Runaway and homeless sexual minorities.
· Court responses to runaway offenses and other juvenile status violations.
· Street youth in different countries.
Presenting the complex situation as it stands, and with clear suggestions for action, Runaway and Homeless Youth is a valuable resource for family therapists, sociologists, social workers, school administrators, health professionals, police, judges, and other criminal justice professional, along with professionals involved in young people's well-being and policy-making initiatives.
Until recent decades, there was little emphasis on studying death threats as a social or psychological phenomenon. However, since the 1960s, attacks on public officials and celebrities and the ubiquitous nature of homicidal threats in face-to-face re- tions have spawned research and new organizational responses to death threats and related behaviors, such as stalking. Publicized workplace-related death threats and shootings, such as the 21 separate incidents since 1986 in which U.S. Postal Service employees were shot, and the death threats and attacks directed at schools and universities have helped to transform death threats from a private phenomenon into a social problem. Political leaders have developed new policies, organizational structures, and laws in an attempt to prevent death threats and related violence. Moreover, in the aftermath of 9/11, the U.S. government and other governments around the world have formulated new policies and organizational structures to deal with the threat of terrorist attacks. At the level of interpersonal relations, the weakening of social control processes allows individuals to make homicidal threats against people and organizations in different settings. This book will address such questions as, Under what conditions are individuals able to evade social control by making death threats? What factors trigger the response of social control mechanisms to death threat makers? How effective are the institutional responses to death threats? At the macrolevel, this book assesses how governments and paramilitary and terrorist groups also employ death threats to achieve their desired social and political objectives.
Clinical and Psychological Perspectives on Foul Play examines a wide range of factors that can influence how police determine foul play in possible homicide cases and in other possible crimes. It develops a new theory of uncertainty at micro, meso, and macro levels to explain how law professionals arrive at this decision. Specifically, it examines the extent to which uncertainty in these situations can be influenced by media coverage, family and community pressures, socioeconomic factors, demographic elements of victims, as well as police knowledge and resources. Written for forensic practitioners, this book describes how these professionals can consult with law enforcement on such issues as the staging of crime scenes to mask intent, the initiation of community strategies to find missing persons, and the reliability of behavioral profiles. The latest research from the Foul Play Project and the Missing Persons Project are employed to support the recommendations in this book and to point the way toward further research in this area.
"Aging and Chronic Disease" provides new perspectives on how aging is affected by chronic disease. The book focuses on how chronic disorders, such as diabetes, arthritis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer influence stress, coping, and quality of life among older adults. The book emphasizes how management of risk factors for chronic diseases, new treatment and rehabilitation outcomes, social support, and patient education can reduce health care costs and improve coping strategies, quality of life, and longevity of older adults. Covering a wide range of topics from health care disparities, costs, new trends in disease risk factors, cognitive changes in older adults, and disability outcomes, this book will be relevant to a wide range of professionals and students in the fields of gerontology, public health, mental health, social work, health administration, and social sciences.
There has been a significant increase in the prevalence of certain chronic disorders among children and adolescents. For example, health experts warn of an epidemic of diabetes mellitus due to an increase in the sedentary life style and poor nutrition of children. There are many questions still to be addressed in the study of chronic disorders among children and adolescents.What are the risk factors associated with chronic diseases in these populations?What are the major complications that contribute to disability and increased health care utilization and costs? What impact do chronic diseases have on the psychosocial development? What are the most effective diagnostic, treatment,and rehabilitation strategies? How can patient education and self-management activities be improved to help children and adolescents improve compliance with treatment regimens? How can parents and other family members become more involved in assessment and management? In what ways can peers, schools,religious institutions, and other organizations help children and adolescent scope with their chronic disease? This book addresses these questions by focusing on how eight chronic disorders affect health care utilization, costs, coping, and health outcomes in children and adolescents.Research studies are used to illustrate wide range of topics from the epidemiology of chronic diseases in children and adolescents, health care utilization and costs, to treatment outcomes, disability, and family processes.Case studies from a clinical psychologist's private practice are used to clarify major psychosocial issues underlying chronic diseases in these populations. Chapter One analyzes the epidemiology of eight chronic conditions in children and adolescents. Data on the prevalence of diseases and associated risk factors are stressed in this chapter. Health care planners can use these analyses to improve primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention through more effective uses of health care resources. Chapter Two examines the latest information on health care utilization and costs for children and adolescents that can point to a more efficient means of reducing the rising health care costs associated with the treatment of chronic diseases. In the remaining chapters, the eight chronic diseases are evaluated in terms of five major issues. First, the latest trends in complications associated with each chronic condition are explored.Second, the impact of each disease on disability and psychosocial development of children and adolescents are analyzed. Third, recent research findings on diagnosis,treatment, and rehabilitation strategies are discussed. Fourth, new trends in patient education and self-management are presented. Fifth, each chapter will assess the role of family, peers, schools, and other organizations in helping children and adolescents cope with their chronic disorders. Dr. Mark L. Goldstein, a clinical psychologist, reviews the literature and uses composite case studies from his practice to illustrate the impact of these trends on how children and adolescents manage chronic disease. The information in this book will be relevant to a wide range of professionals and students in the fields of pediatrics, medicine, nursing, public health, mental health, social work,education, health administration, health policy, and social sciences.
This ambitious multidisciplinary volume surveys the science, forensics, politics, and ethics involved in responding to missing persons cases. International experts across the physical and social sciences offer data, case examples, and insights on best practices, new methods, and emerging specialties that may be employed in investigations. Topics such as secondary victimization, privacy issues, DNA identification, and the challenges of finding victims of war and genocide highlight the uncertainties and complexities surrounding these cases as well as possibilities for location and recovery. This diverse presentation will assist professionals in accessing new ideas, collaborating with colleagues, and handling missing persons cases with greater efficiency-and potentially greater certainty.Among the Handbook's topics:·A profile of missing persons: some key findings for police officers.·Missing persons investigations and identification: issues of scale, infrastructure, and political will.
·Pregnancy and parenting among runaway and homeless young women.
·Estimating the appearance of the missing: forensic age progression in the search for missing persons.·The use of trace evidence in missing persons investigations.·The Investigation of historic missing persons cases: genocide and "conflict time" human rights abuses.The depth and scope of its expertise make the Handbook of Missing Persons useful for criminal justice and forensic professionals, health care and mental health professionals, social scientists, legal professionals, policy leaders, community leaders, and military personnel, as well as for the general public.