"Degradation process" refers to many types of reliability models, which correspond to various kinds of stochastic processes used for deterioration modeling. This book focuses on the case of a univariate degradation model with a continuous set of possible outcomes. The envisioned univariate models have one single measurable quantity which is assumed to be observed over time. The first three chapters are each devoted to one degradation model. The last chapter illustrates the use of the previously described degradation models on some real data sets. For each of the degradation models, the authors provide probabilistic results and explore simulation tools for sample paths generation. Various estimation procedures are also developed.
This book addresses those involved in research or R&D. It introduces the principles of eco-innovation and the importance of the impact of their activity. This topic is considered in the context of natural and digital ecosystems powered by intelligent assistants (technology). Chapter 1 positions the innovation as a process and component of ecosystems including research, enterprises, technology (digital
ecosystems) and environment. Sustainable success is a condition of survival and an expectation of those who invest in innovation. Chapter 2 describes the main elements to consider and gives some tips. Chapter 3 presents some selected initiatives at the national and European level and provides a way of measuring success.
With innovation fast becoming omnipresent and part of strategic matters, there is a growing need to understand how to jumpstart the innovation process. This book introduces the concept of "e-co-innovation," which fosters the successful transition from idea to reality and ultimate value. It provides a global and system overview of the subject and presents various aspects of innovation from different angles and perspectives, leading to an understanding of all ecosystem components, their metamorphoses, cross-influences and possible impacts on the balanced development of people, businesses, regions and countries.
Since the HMS Challenger expedition of 1872-1876, our vision of the ocean has changed completely. We now understand that it plays a key role in biodiversity, climate regulation, and mineral and biological resources, and as such, the ocean is a major service provider for humanity. Oceans draws on data from new oceanographic and satellite tools, acquired through international interdisciplinary programs. It describes the processes that control how the ocean functions, on different spatial and temporal scales. After considering the evolution of concepts in physical, chemical and biological oceanography, the book outlines the future of a warmer, acidified, less oxygenated ocean. It shows how a view of the ocean at different scales changes how we understand it. Finally, the book presents the challenges facing the ocean in terms of the exploitation of biological and mineral resources, in the context of sustainable development and the regulation of climate change.
Climate change has been a central concern over recent years, with visible and highly publicized consequences such as melting Arctic ice and mountain glaciers, rising sea levels, and the submersion of low-lying coastal areas during mid-latitude and tropical cyclones. This book presents a review of the spatial impacts of contemporary climate change, with a focus on a systematic, multi-scalar approach. Beyond the facts - rises in temperature, changes in the spatial distribution of precipitation, melting of the marine and terrestrial cryosphere, changes in hydrological regimes at high and medium latitudes, etc. - it also analyzes the geopolitical consequences in the Arctic and Central Asia, changes to Mediterranean culture and to viticulture on a global scale, as well as impacts on the distribution of life, for example, in the Amazon rainforest, in large biomes on a global scale, and for birds.